Observing a robot with living muscles navigating through water

Biohybrid Robot: Combining Muscle and AI


A tiny, bipedal robot that combines muscle tissue with artificial materials can walk and turn by contracting its muscles.

Robot Capabilities

While biohybrid robots that crawl and swim have been built before with lab-grown muscle, this is the first such bipedal robot that can pivot and make sharp turns. It does this by applying electricity to one of its legs to make the muscle contract, while the other leg remains anchored. The muscle acts as a biological actuator – a component that converts electrical energy into mechanical force.

Challenges and Limitations

At the moment, the robot, which is only 3 centimetres tall, cannot support itself in air and has a foam buoy to help it stand up in a water tank. The muscles are grown from rat cells in a laboratory. “This is still basic research,” says team member Shoji Takeuchi at the University of Tokyo, Japan.

The robot is still extraordinarily slow by human standards, moving just 5.4 millimetres per minute. It also takes over a minute to turn 90 degrees, with an electric stimulation every 5 seconds.

Takeuchi hopes the team can make the robot faster by optimising the pattern of electrical stimulation and improving the design.

“The next step for the biohybrid robot would be to develop a version with joints and additional muscle tissues for more sophisticated walking capabilities,” he says. “Thick muscles would also need to be built to increase strength.”

To walk in air rather than water, the robot would also need a nutrient supply system to keep the muscle tissue alive.

Future Developments

Victoria Webster-Wood at Carnegie Mellon University in Pennsylvania says the study is an interesting proof of concept for biohybrid robots. “These types of biohybrid robots are useful tools for studying engineered muscle tissue and investigating how to control biological actuators,” says Webster-Wood. “As the force and control capabilities advance through this type of scientific research, the ability to apply these actuators to more complex robots will increase.”

The biohybrid robot containing muscle tissue, standing in a tank of water. Image credit: Shoji Takeuchi research group, University of Tokyo (CC-BY SA)

The sight of the robot moving through the water with its living muscles was truly mesmerizing. The way it seemed to effortlessly glide through the water, just like a human, was both awe-inspiring and slightly unsettling. Watching it navigate the water with such fluidity and grace made it seem almost too lifelike, as if it were a real human instead of a mechanical being. The realistic movements of its muscles as it propelled itself forward were a testament to the incredible advancements in robotics, and it was impossible not to be amazed by the sheer level of technology on display.

Seeing the robot walk through the water, with its living muscles providing such lifelike movement, was a remarkable demonstration of scientific ingenuity. The way it maneuvered through the water, each step perfectly mimicking that of a human, was a testament to the progress that has been made in robotics and bioengineering. It was a surreal experience to witness a machine move in such a human-like manner, and it was impossible not to feel a sense of wonder and amazement at the capabilities of modern technology. The sight of the robot walking through the water with such fluidity and grace was a powerful reminder of just how far science has come in creating machines that so closely resemble living beings.

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